1 belonging to or active during the night; "nocturnal animals are active at night"; "nocturnal plants have flowers that open at night and close by day" [ant: diurnal]
2 of or relating to or occurring in the night; "nocturnal darkness"
3 of or during or relating to the night; "a nocturnal journey"; "nocturnal stillness"; "nocturnal predators"
- Rhymes: -ɜː(r)nəl
- In the context of "of a person, creature, group, or species": Primarily active during the night.
- In the context of "of an occurrence": Taking place at night.
primarily active during the night
- Chinese: 夜的 (yè-de)
- Czech: noční
- Dutch: nachtelijk, nacht-
- Finnish: yö- (former part of compound), yöllinen, öinen, nokturnaalinen (scientific)
- French: nocturne
- German: nächtlich, nachtaktiv
- Greek: νυκτ- (or νυχτ-), replaces when the 2nd synthetic part of the compound word begins with an asper-accented vowel, νυκτο- (or νυχτο-), νυκτό- (or νυχτό-) ("nocturnal" prefixes); νυκτερινός (or νυχτερινός) [niˌkte̞riˈno̞s] , νυκτιάτικος (or νυχτιάτικος) [niˈktçatiˌko̞s] , νυκτόβιος (or νυχτόβιος) [niˈkto̞viˌo̞s] (that lives during the night) , ξενύκτης (or ξενύχτης) [k͡se̞ˈniktis] [someone (mainly a man) who spends the nights drinking with women]
- Hungarian: éjjeli
- Polish: nocny , nocna , nocne
- Swedish: natt-, nattaktiv, aktiv om natten
- West Frisian: nachtlik, nacht-
As an animal behavior, nocturnality describes sleeping during the daytime and being active at night - the opposite of the diurnal human lifestyle, and that of those animals with which we are most familiar. The intermediate crepuscular schedule (twilight activity) is also common. Some species are active both during the day and night. Living at night can be seen as a form of niche differentiation, where a species' niche is partitioned not by resources but by time itself, i.e. temporal division of the ecological niche. It can also be viewed as a form of crypsis, in other words an adaptation to avoid or enhance predation. There are other reasons for nocturnality as well, such as keeping out of the heat of the day. This is especially true in deserts, where many animals' nocturnal behavior prevents them from losing precious water during the hot, dry daytime. This is an adaptation that enhances osmoregulation.
Many species which are otherwise diurnal exhibit some nocturnal behaviour; for example, many seabirds and sea turtles attend breeding sites or colonies nocturnally to reduce the risk of predation (to themselves or their offspring) but are otherwise diurnal. Some animals are not really nocturnal and are instead crepuscular, being mostly active in twilight.
Nocturnal animals generally have highly developed senses of hearing and smell, and specially adapted eyesight. In zoos, nocturnal animals are usually kept in special night-illumination enclosures to reverse their normal sleep-wake cycle and to keep them active during the hours when visitors will be attempting to see them.
Some animals, such as cats, have eyes that can adapt to both night and day levels of illumination (see metaturnal). Others, e.g. bushbabies and bats, can only function at night.
A person who exhibits nocturnal habits is referred to as a night owl; he or she is of the "eveningness" chronotype.
nocturnal in Danish: Natdyr
nocturnal in German: Temporale Spezialisten
nocturnal in Esperanto: Noktumo
nocturnal in French: Nocturne (comportement animal)
nocturnal in Croatian: Noćne životinje
nocturnal in Indonesian: Hewan nokturnal
nocturnal in Icelandic: Næturdýr
nocturnal in Italian: Animale notturno
nocturnal in Dutch: Nachtdier
nocturnal in Japanese: 夜行性
nocturnal in Simple English: Nocturnal
nocturnal in Chinese: 夜行性